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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:dashi-studio.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由(you)主体、驱动(dong)(dong)系统(tong)和(he)控制(zhi)系统(tong)三个(ge)基(ji)本部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)。按(an)机(ji)器人结构(gou)分(fen)类为(wei)直角坐标(biao)型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿(yan)二(er)维直角坐标(biao)系移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)。主体部(bu)分(fen)通(tong)常采用(yong)(yong)龙门式结构(gou),由(you)y向(xiang)(xiang)横梁(liang)(liang)与导(dao)轨、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)、十(shi)字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)座(zuo)、立柱、过渡(du)连接板和(he)基(ji)座(zuo)等部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng),z向(xiang)(xiang)的直线运动(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过蜗轮(lun)减速器驱动(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与y向(xiang)(xiang)横梁(liang)(liang)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)上固定(ding)的齿条作滚动(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件沿(yan)导(dao)轨快速运动(dong)(dong)。移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件为(wei)质量较轻(qing)的十(shi)字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)座(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)采用(yong)(yong)由(you)铝合金拉制(zhi)的型(xing)材。横梁(liang)(liang)采用(yong)(yong)方钢型(xing)材,在(zai)横梁(liang)(liang)上安装有(you)导(dao)轨和(he)齿条,通(tong)过滚轮(lun)与导(dao)轨接触(chu),整个(ge)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬(xuan)挂在(zai)其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)时间(jian)短(duan)。当输(shu)送较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件时,惯量(liang)大,因此,伺服驱(qu)动电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)要(yao)有足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动和(he)制(zhi)动的(de)(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑元件也要(yao)有足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚(gang)度(du)(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)(du)。只有这样,才能使伺服电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)满足桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)高响应、高刚(gang)度(du)(du)(du)及高精度(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)选(xuan)择合(he)适伺服电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下,根据(ju)(ju)物(wu)料运(yun)动的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)节拍,计算出伺服系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨迹,对(dui)驱(qu)动器(qi)PID参数进行(xing)(xing)动态(tai)调(diao)整。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手根据(ju)(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)度(du)(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大并调(diao)整处理后,传(chuan)(chuan)递给(ji)运(yun)动单元,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)光纤传(chuan)(chuan)感器(qi)对(dui)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)状态(tai)进行(xing)(xing)实时检测(ce),在(zai)高速(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)动部件在(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间(jian)内到达给(ji)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du),并能在(zai)高速(su)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)中(zhong)瞬(shun)间(jian)准停,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)高分辩(bian)率(lv)绝对(dui)式编(bian)码(ma)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)插补(bu)运(yun)算,控制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误差(cha)和(he)测(ce)量(liang)误差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)动精度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件不同,质量(liang)也不同,因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手有多种规格和(he)系列。在(zai)选(xuan)择时,根据(ju)(ju)被输(shu)送工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量(liang),加(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来选(xuan)取(qu)。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹持方式,则根据(ju)(ju)被输(shu)送工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹具定(ding)夹方式来设计(见图(tu)2)。

机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手能够借助(zhu)可编程序(xu)来处理和(he)执行任(ren)务。机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)由手图 1 臂、回转装置(zhi)、运动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动部件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)组成。通过对(dui)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)上(shang)(shang)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)支撑点定(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如,在汽车(che)发动机(ji)(ji)加工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动线物(wu)流输(shu)送中,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块会根据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特点,选取不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式(shi)。柔(rou)性(xing)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手上(shang)(shang)采用(yong)气(qi)缸(gang)和(he)电机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块的(de)(de)(de)切换(huan)驱动,一套机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手可完成不同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块可根据产(chan)品质(zhi)量和(he)外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系列(lie)化设计,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块安装方式(shi)相同(tong)(tong),针对(dui)不同(tong)(tong)系列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切换(huan)相应的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块即可,满足(zu)快速(su)切换(huan)的(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)(yao)。这(zhei)样,当加工(gong)(gong)不同(tong)(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),只须(xu)变换(huan)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块就可实现,提高了桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架机械手输送装置(zhi)的发(fa)展及现(xian)状(zhuang)

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)发(fa)展,经历了刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)两个时(shi)代(dai)。就目前而言, 在国内二者均有之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘(ji)(ji)轮(lun)棘(ji)(ji)爪(zhua)、摆杆(gan)、抬(tai)起步(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式(shi)。随(sui)着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)发(fa)展,由(you)其组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)替(ti)代(dai)组(zu)合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以适应小(xiao)批量多品(pin)(pin)种(zhong)的(de)优点(dian),得到市场的(de)广泛认可(ke)(ke),并称其为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式(shi)以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou))并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)(bu)由(you)桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)组(zu)成(cheng),这是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)真(zhen)正(zheng)的(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)配以桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之为(wei)(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)敏捷制(zhi)造系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)重要组(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)可(ke)(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)意改变,自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)安(an)装(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)或(huo)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)倍(bei)数的(de)要求进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)严格的(de)安(an)装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度(du)也(ye)可(ke)(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)距(ju)离而改变。而真(zhen)正(zheng)体(ti)现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)重要一(yi)面是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)产品(pin)(pin)改变后,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)不会不适应而全部(bu)(bu)更换,只要改变输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)局部(bu)(bu)结构即可(ke)(ke)。采用桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)(jin)的(de)一(yi)面是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)体(ti)的(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智(zhi)能化(hua)的(de)协调统(tong)(tong)一(yi)。因(yin)此,桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)才在当今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多地(di)被采用,使整(zheng)个生产过程通过信息流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)过程中(zhong),所需各(ge)种(zhong)信息收集(ji)、处(chu)理、反馈,并通过电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(液(ye)压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)设(she)备(bei)实行(xing)(xing)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)级控(kong)制(zhi)。信息流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)由(you)中(zhong)央管理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以及信息传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)。目前,汽车制(zhi)造业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸(gang)体(ti)、缸(gang)盖及曲轴等大批量关键零件的(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距

当下,我国(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展很快,技术水平(ping)有了(le)很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得(de)越来越小,甚至(zhi)有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有什么差(cha)距(ju)。特别(bie)是国(guo)(guo)家重大(da)(da)科(ke)技专项的(de)(de)(de)开展,为(wei)(wei)我国(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档次上水平(ping)提高了(le)加(jia)速度,成绩显而易见。加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几年发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)快,但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平(ping)和档次,较国(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还(hai)很明显,国(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为(wei)(wei)普遍,而国(guo)(guo)内却为(wei)(wei)数不多,国(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)多从国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口(kou)。如无锡柴(chai)油发(fa)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)GROB公司(si)总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)检(jian)具(ju)、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽(qi)车制(zhi)造业而言,国(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可数。大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)和沈(shen)阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)等生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该(gai)方面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)实际中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)得(de)到了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)工(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)体,分别(bie)为(wei)(wei)四缸(gang)(gang)和六缸(gang)(gang),其输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为(wei)(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)等形式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)个,一个上料,一个下料。它的(de)(de)(de)成功,标(biao)志着我国(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始(shi)向国(guo)(guo)际水准迈进(jin)。

上述提及的(de)(de)只是数量上的(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)技术水平与国(guo)外有(you)着(zhe)一(yi)(yi)定(ding)的(de)(de)差(cha)距。柔性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)采用的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手,也是从国(guo)外进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手。那时,国(guo)内还没有(you)专门生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手的(de)(de)厂(chang)家(jia)。如今,国(guo)内巨一(yi)(yi)等一(yi)(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手生产(chan)厂(chang)家(jia)的(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)产(chan)柔性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)带来(lai)(lai)了(le)(le)希望,进而(er)缩小了(le)(le)与国(guo)外在生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手方面的(de)(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手在柔性(xing)加工(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)应用也越来(lai)(lai)越多,从而(er)打破国(guo)产(chan)市场被(bei)外国(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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